Language Arts & Disciplines

Balkan Sprachbund Morpho-Syntactic Features

At the end of 1998, Professor Pieter Muysken was awarded the Spinoza prize of the Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research (NOW) and set up a research program entitled Lexicon and Syntax. The implementation of the Program started in the autumn of 1999 with research on the lexicon and syntax in a number of areas where contacts between 1 different languages are intensive. For the languages of many of the areas selected, basic data had to be collected. For most of the languages of the Balkan Sprachbund area, however, there are grammars and dictionaries. Moreover, quite a number of studies of the Balkan Spra- bund features have been published. Accordingly, when I joined the team of the Project, I aimed at a description of the state of art in the field. After several months of research, I realized that Balkanists have mainly been concerned with compiling lists of similarities and making parallels between the lexical and grammatical forms of the Balkan languages, while analyses of the interaction of the Balkan Sprachbund morpho-syntactic features with other features in the structure of the DP or the sentence of a given language/dialect are scarce. This oriented me towards descriptions of Balkan Spra- bund morpho-syntactic features in the context of individual sub-systems in nine Balkan language to which they relate the Slavic languages Macedonian, Bulgarian and Serbo-C- atian; the Romance languages Romanian, Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian; Albanian; Modern Greek; and the Arli Balkan Romani dialect.

Balkan Sprachbund Morpho-Syntactic Features

Semantics in Acquisition

This book is unique in that it relates two linguistic subfields: Semantics and Language Acquisition. The volume contains a collection of writings that focuses on semantic phenomena and their interpretation in the analysis of the language of a learner.

Semantics in Acquisition

Case and Linking in Language Comprehension

German is a language which has received a lot of attention in linguistics, and data from German had a substantial in?uence on the formation of linguistic theory. The in?uence this language had so far on psycholinguistics and on s- tactic processing in particular is much more limited, although the last 10 years have seen a growing interest in psycholinguistic investigations of German. The present monograph will build on earlier work and develop it further toward an account of syntactic comprehension on the basis of theoretical as well as – perimental investigations. The verb-?nal nature, the free order of constituents, and the morphological Case system of German offer a rich domain for exp- rations which will be shown to reshape our knowledge about human sentence processing in general. Much of the research which led to this monograph has been carried out at theFriedrichSchiller UniversityJenaandhasbeenconcluded atKonstanzU- versity. Our research has been supported between 1997 and 2005 by grant Ba 1178/4 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the title L- guage Comprehension and Variable Word Order – Syntactic and Extrasyntactic Factors in Processing German Sentences. We are indebted to the DFG for this continuous support over the years, and in particular to Dr. Manfred Briegel and Dr. Susanne Anschtz for their administrative help.

Case and Linking in Language Comprehension

The Acquisition of Verbs and their Grammar:

language-specific competence within the acquisitional process. Together with the focus on acquisition of the verb and its grammar research in this domain provides a fruitful basis for discussion. The maturation model of language acquisition assumes that UG becomes the language specific grammar over time and that UG is entirely available only up until the time when the native language has been completely acquired (cf. Atkinson 1992, Wexler 1999). Constructivist models that may also be opposed to theories of UG alongside with the usage- based approaches m- tioned above mostly elaborate on the early acquisition of spatial relations (e. g. Bowerman and Choi 2001, Sinha et al. 1999); however, two main hy- theses of this approach a holistic view of universal spatial cognition and the language specific acquisition hypothesis are beyond the main scope of this book. The book presents original contributions based on analyses of naturalistic data from eleven languages: Croatian, Dutch, English, Estonian, French, German, Hebrew, Jakarta Indonesian, Japanese, Russian and Spanish. Three of the contributions make cross-linguistic comparisons between English and Russian; English, German and Spanish; and German, Croatian and English. All papers in the volume investigate first language acquisition and one paper studies both first and second language acquisition.

The Acquisition of Verbs and their Grammar:

Remnant Raising and VSO Clausal Architecture

San Lucas Quiavin Zapotec, an endangered and little-examined indigenous language of Mexico, shows a range of syntactic and morphological phenomena incompatible with standard Minimalist accounts of verb movement: verbs and clearly phrasal constituents behave identically in a number of syntactic constructions, and the ordering of verbal morphemes is problematic for standard assumptions of verbal head movement. This work proposes a VP-remnant raising account for these phenomena, motivated by Kayne’s (1992) Antisymmetry program. This work also examines consequences of phrasal remnant movement for negation constructions, question formation; and the interpretation of tense, aspect, and mood.

Remnant Raising and VSO Clausal Architecture

John Dee: Interdisciplinary Studies in English Renaissance Thought

Intellectual History and the Identity of John Dee In April 1995, at Birkbeck College, University of London, an interdisciplinary colloquium was held so that scholars from diverse fields and areas of expertise could 1 exchange views on the life and work of John Dee. Working in a variety of fields intellectual history, history of navigation, history of medicine, history of science, history of mathematics, bibliography and manuscript studies we had all been drawn to Dee by particular aspects of his work, and participating in the colloquium was to c- front other narratives about Dee’s career: an experience which was both bewildering and instructive. Perhaps more than any other intellectual figure of the English Renaissance Dee has been fragmented and dispersed across numerous disciplines, and the various attempts to re-integrate his multiplied image by reference to a particular world-view or philosophical outlook have failed to bring him into focus. This volume records the diversity of scholarly approaches to John Dee which have emerged since the synthetic accounts of I. R. F. Calder, Frances Yates and Peter French. If these approaches have not succeeded in resolving the problematic multiplicity of Dee’s activities, they will at least deepen our understanding of specific and local areas of his intellectual life, and render them more historiographically legible.

John Dee: Interdisciplinary Studies in English Renaissance Thought

Ergativity

This volume presents a collection of papers on the enticing and complex theme of Ergativity. The papers exemplify theoretical depth applied to a wide range of languages, with the majority of papers based on original fieldwork. Ergativity refers to a grammatical pattern in which the logical subject of intransitive clauses and the logical object of transitive clauses share some grammatical features, and in this respect differ from transitive subjects. The shared features are often case and/or agreement, but a variety of other relevant features have also been isolated in the literature. The ergative pattern contrasts with that found in accusative languages where the subject has the same grammatical marking in intransitive and transitive clauses, while the object has different marking. Ergativity provides us with an ideal testing ground for claims about the range and limits of language variation, and about the degree of elasticity in the morphology-syntax interface. However, because an understanding of ergativity rests on an understanding of other difficult grammatical issues such as grammatical relations, transitivity, aspect, person, case, and agreement, a clear and integrated analysis of the phenomenon has remained elusive. Since Dixon’s (1967/1972) pioneer study of Dyirbal, extensive research has been conducted on a variety of ergative languages over the world from both descriptive, typological, and theoretical perspectives (see inter alia Anderson 1976, Silverstein 1976, Comrie 1978, Dixon 1979, 1994, DeLancey 1981, Marantz 1984, Levin & Massam 1985, Johns 1992, Bittner and Hale 1996, to name a few).

Ergativity

Attitudes and Changing Contexts

In this book, the author defends a unified externalists account of propositional attitudes and reference, and formalizes this view within possible world semantics. He establishes a link between philosophical analyses of intentionality and reference and formal semantic theories of discourse representation and context change. Stalnakerian diagonalization plays an important role here. Anaphora are treated as referential expressions, while presupposition is seen as a propositional attitude. The relation between belief change and the semantic analyses of conditional sentences and evidential (knowledge) and buletic (desire) propositional attitudes is discussed extensively.

Attitudes and Changing Contexts

Cambridge and Vienna

The Institute Vienna Circle held a conference in Vienna in 2003, Cambridge and Vienna Frank P. Ramsey and the Vienna Circle, to commemorate the philosophical and scientific work of Frank Plumpton Ramsey (19031930). This Ramsey conference provided not only historical and biographical perspectives on one of the most gifted thinkers of the Twentieth Century, but also new impulses for further research on at least some of the topics pioneered by Ramsey, whose interest and potential are greater than ever. Ramsey did pioneering work in several fields, practitioners of which rarely know of his important work in other fields: philosophy of logic and theory of language, foundations of mathematics, mathematics, probability theory, methodology of science, philosophy of psychology, and economics. There was a focus on the one topic which was of strongest mutual concern to Ramsey and the Vienna Circle, namely the question of foundations of mathematics, in particular the status of logicism. Although the major scientific connection linking Ramsey with Austria is his work on logic, to which the Vienna Circle dedicated several meetings, certainly the connection which is of greater general interest concerns Ramsey’s visits and discussions with Wittgenstein. Ramsey was the only important thinker to actually visit Wittgenstein during his school-teaching career in Puchberg and Ottertal in the 1920s, in Lower Austria; and later, Ramsey was instrumental in getting Wittgenstein positions at Cambridge.

Cambridge and Vienna

Elsevier’s Dictionary of Geography

Geography is a system of highly developed sciences about the environment. Geographical science embracing the study of the Earth’s physical phenomena, people and their economic activities has always been in need of an extensive terminology. Geographical terms are related to the terms of natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, etc.) and humanities (history, economics, sociology, etc.) since geography is based on these fundamental subjects. Geography includes a number of disciplines and subdivisions which appeared along with the development of the science In spite of being very different geographical disciplines have some common tools of investigation which is maps, comparative method of exploration, remote sensing, geoinformation systems. Today very well developed terminologies of all the specialist fields of geography and related subjects exist in the main world languages. However, they are not always well-correlated. Nowadays geographical terminology requires unification and international correlation more than ever before. Hence the idea of compiling a multilingual polydisciplinary dictionary. The Dictionary consists of the basic table of terms arranged according to the order of the English alphabet with each term numbered. Each entry consists of the term in English and its equivalents in Russian, French, German, Spanish. Short definitions of terms are given in English and in Russian. The terms are supplied with the necessary grammar labels, such as gender of nouns, plural number, etc. The Dictionary combines two functions: that of a defining dictionary and that of a bilingual dictionary. These two functions are basically contradictory because usually the defining dictionary is aimed at giving one meaning of the word which is the main and essential one, while the bilingual dictionary tries to give different equivalents of a given word in the other language in order to supply the user with maximum possible translations, differing in the shades of meanings, thus giving him the possibility to choose the appropriate word. But in our Dictionary we intentionally decided to combine the two functions defining and multilingual, because a short definition of the term and equivalents in other languages help to achieve our main aim which consists in showing the basic geographical terminology and harmonizing it in several languages. Having this into consideration we deliberately mixed two types of dictionaries in one. *Organized alphabetically via English *Provides short definition of geographical terms in English and Russian *Includes multilingual translation of terms from English to Russian, French, German, Spanish

Elsevier’s Dictionary of Geography

1 2 3 4 53